Impurities which the Islamic law orders to be removed
The proof is the hadeeth about the bedouin Arab who urinated in the mosque and the Prophet ﷺ admonished him by saying, “These masaajid (mosques) are not for urinating or other filth, but they are for the remembrance of Allah, Salah and recitation of the Quran.” [ agreed upon.]
The proof for this is from the authentic narration, when Khaulah, the daughter of Yasaar y, went to the Prophet ﷺ and said: “O Messenger of Allah, I possess only one garment and I am menstruating,” the Prophet said: “When the blood stops (and you have taken a bath), wash the part stained with blood then pray in it.” [ narrated by Abu Dawud.]
Any blood, apart from menstrual blood, is pure. Whether it is blood spilled out or other than that. The evidence for this is the narration where one of the polytheists shot an arrow at one of the believers when he was praying. The man was hit and blood began flowing from the wound, but he removed the arrow and continued his prayer.
This is established on the hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ud : “The Prophet ﷺ went to the toilet and he ordered that I bring him three stones, but I only found two stones. I searched for a third, but didn’t find it, so I took a piece of dung and went to him with them. He took the two stones and dropped the dung saying: ‘This is impure.’” [ narrated by Al-Bukhari.]
It is any animal which died on its own, without being slaughtered in accordance with Islamic Law. Allah I the Most High says: “Say (O Muhammad ﷺ I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten for one who wishes to eat it, except it be a dead animal, or blood (that has) spilled out, or the flesh of pigs; for that surely is impure...” (Al-An’aam:145).
Dead meat also includes any part cut from a live animal, before the animal is slaughtered.
From the statement of the noble Prophet:ﷺ “There has been made permissible for us two carrions and two types of blood. As for the two carrions, they are fishes and locusts (they can be eaten un-slaughtered) and as for the two bloods, they are the liver and spleen.” [ narrated by Ahmad.]
The Prophet ﷺ said: “When a fly falls into any one of your containers, you should dip it in (the liquid) completely, and then remove it, because verily, in one of its wings is an antidote and the other a poison.” [ narrated by Al-Bukhari.]
Allah I says: “Say (O Muhammad ﷺ: I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten for one who wishes to eat it, except it be a dead animal, or blood (that has) spilled out, or the flesh of pigs; for that surely is impure...” (Al-An’aam:145).
The Prophet ﷺ said: “When one of you wants to purify a container from which a dog has drunk, wash it seven times, the first time with soil.” [ agreed upon.]
It is a whitish sticky liquid that is produced during foreplay or by thinking of sex. It is neither emitted from sexual desire nor does it gush forth, and it is not accompanied by a feeling of tiredness due to its release - contrary to semen. One may not even notice its discharge. This is according to the hadeeth from Ali bin Abi Talib who asked the Prophet ﷺ concerning this, who then replied: “Wash your private part and perform ablution.” [ agreed upon.]
It is a thick white fluid that comes out sometimes after urination.
Alcohol is physically pure. Although it is impure on a spiritual level and drinking it is one of the major sins in Islam, there is no evidence stating that it’s physically impure.
As for the statement of Allah (exalted be He): “O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, al-ansab (stones used as shrines or idols), and al-azlam (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of shaitan’s handiwork, so strictly avoid them in order that you may be successful.” (Al-Maidah: 90).
What is meant by this verse in reference to alcohol is spiritual impurity, and not physical impurity. In this regard it is just like gambling and idols.
When an impurity falls on a floor, it can be purified by using water or another purifying substance. This is according to the hadeeth of the bedouin Arab who urinated in the masjid, when the Prophet ﷺsaid: “Leave him, but pour a pail or a bucket full of water on his urine.” [ narrated by Muslim.]
However, when the liquid impurity spreads and then dries, the floor then becomes purified. This is evident from the statement of Abu Qilabah t who said: “When a floor becomes dry, it is clean.” [ narrated by Al-Bukhari.]
It is purified by adding more water to it until the trace or traces of impurity disappear. And it can be purified, as well, by using modern purification methods.
It is washed with water, rubbing and squeezing it until the impurity is removed.
Sheets, blankets etc. are washed with water, or with water and (then) modern cleansers - if necessary - until the impurity is removed.
Hides are purified by tanning. The Prophetﷺ said: “When a skin is tanned it has become pure.” [ narrated by Muslim.] Tanning is the treatment of hides with special substances which soften them and remove the stench from them. The hides of animals which are permissible to eat and who were slaughtered according to shari’ah guidelines are pure.
As for hides which cannot be distinguished one from the other - i.e. whether it is the hide of a permissible or impermissible animal - then tanning does not purify it, even though it (the hide) could be pure in actuality.
A baby-girl’s urine is washed from any fibrous material e.g. garment, bed sheet, etc. to purify it, however sprinkling water is sufficient for purifying something from the urine of a baby-boy.
This is according to the hadeeth of A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) who reported the Prophet ﷺ to have said: “The baby-girl’s urine is washed while that of a baby-boy is sprinkled on.”[ narrated by Abu Dawud.]
It is washed seven times, the first with soil. The Prophet ﷺ said: “The purification of your container in which a dog has licked is by washing it seven times; the first time with soil.” [ agreed upon.]
He should wash his penis and perform ablution. The Prophet ﷺ said according to the hadeeth of Ali bin Abi Talibt: “Make wudu’ and wash your private part.” [ agreed upon.]
As for cloth stained with either of these, it is enough to drop water on the portion stained. This is according to the the hadeeth of Sahl ibn Haneef t when he asked the Prophet ﷺ: “How do I clean my garment which is stained with it (Al-Madhy / Al-Wady),” He ﷺ said; “It is enough if you use a handful of water and sprinkle it on your clothes when you find it (Al-Madhy / Al-Wady) has smeared it.”[ narrated by Abu Dawud.]
It is washed with water and there is no problem if traces of it remain. The Prophet ﷺ said: “Water is enough (to clean it) and the traces will not harm you.” [ narrated by Abu Dawud.]
Any type of footwear can be purified from filth by rubbing them in dirt or sand until there are no traces of impurity on them. The Prophet ﷺ said: “When any of you steps in an impurity when you’re wearing shoes, the soil is enough to purify them.” [ narrated by Abu Dawud.]
If the tail of a female’s garment is stained (with an impurity), it is enough for her to continue walking over a clean place; which thereby purifies the garment. The Prophet ﷺ said: “What comes after it (clean soil) will purify it.” [ narrated by Abu Dawud.]
The impurity and the contaminated portion of food surrounding it are removed until what remains is pure and has not been contaminated by the impurity. The Prophet ﷺ said concerning a rat which had fallen into some butter, “Remove it (the rat) and the butter around it, and then eat your butter.” [ narrated by Al-Bukhari.]
They are wiped until the traces of impurity are removed.
1- The fundemental principle regarding things is that they are pure until something indicates otherwise.
2- When an impurity befalls any cloth etc, but the exact place of the impurity is unknown, the entire cloth is to be washed.
3- When an impurity changes into something else e.g. when the dung of a donkey is burnt, changing into ashes - then it becomes pure through this change.