Q 2: A Fatwa (legal opinion) has been issued stating the following:
the Sunnah Qabliyyah (supererogatory Prayer performed before an obligatory Prayer) of Jumu‘ah (Friday) Prayer
has substantial evidence provided by the Four Imams (Imams Abu Hanifah, Malik, Al-Shafi‘y, and Ahmad) and their followers in the East and the West. Certainly, the Four Imams and their followers represent the overwhelming majority of Muslims. If the Muslims split into two groups over a controversial ruling, one representing the majority and the other (Part No. 8; Page No. 260) the minority, it is better to follow the view held by the majority, acting on the behest of the Khalaf (the later generations) as passed on from the Salaf (the pious predecessors) and also the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him),
“Unity is a mercy and dissention is a punishment.”
Secondly: The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself performed this Sunnah (supererogatory) Salah before the Jumu‘ah Prayer. It was reported by
on the authority of
‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ud (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to offer four Rak‘ahs (units of Prayer) before the Jumu‘ah Prayer and four Rak‘ahs after it.
Thirdly: The Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered
when he entered the Masjid (mosque) to offer two Rak‘ahs, while he (peace be upon him) was delivering the Friday Khutbah (sermon) from the pulpit. It was reported in some narrations that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to him,
“Did you offer Salah before you came?”
Fourthly: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said,
“Between every two calls to Salah there is a Salah.”
The words “two calls to Salah” in this Hadith refer to the Adhan (call to Prayer) and the Iqamah (call to start the Prayer).Fifthly: Qiyas (analogy) can be drawn between the Jumu‘ah and Zhuhr (Noon) Prayers, as they are both individual obligations. End of quote.We would like Your Eminence to explain the Sanads (chain of narrators) of the Hadith mentioned in this Fatwa, are they Sahih (authentic)? Especially the Sanad of the Hadith reported by
The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to offer four Rak‘ahs (units of Prayer) before the Jumu‘ah Prayer and four Rak‘ahs after it.
Is the Sanad of this Hadith Sahih (authentic) or Da‘if (weak)? Is it correct to use the Hadith of
as evidence to support the view that there is Sunnah Salah before the Jum‘ah Prayer or not?
There is no Sunnah Salah before the Jumu‘ah Prayer. As far as we know, there is no authentic report from the Prophet (peace be upon him) affirming the permissibility of this practice. As to the Hadith of
Ibn Mas‘ud, it is related by
Al-Tirmidhy using the uncertainty mood (passive voice to imply the Hadith narration is weak) and it is Mawquf (words narrated from a Companion of the Prophet that are not attributed to the Prophet) from
Ibn Mas‘ud. (Part No. 8; Page No. 261) It is reported in "Al-Tuhfah" by Al-Hafiz that
Al-Tabarany related it as Hadith Marfu‘ (a Hadith narrated from the Prophet with a connected or disconnected chain of narration) with a Da‘if and disconnected Sanad. Accordingly, such a Hadith cannot be used as evidence.With regard to the Hadith narrated by
Abu Hurayrah concerning
Sulayk, it is Sahih. However, it refers to Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid (two-unit Prayer to salute the mosque) not to Sunnah Qabliyyah of the Jumu‘ah Prayer. As to the Hadith,
“Between every two calls to Salah there is a Salah”
it cannot be applied in the Jumu‘ah Prayer. The Messenger (peace be upon him) used to begin his Khutbah immediately after the Adhan had finished. Apart from Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid, it is not permissible to offer a Nafilah (supererogatory Prayer) while the Imam is delivering the Khutbah. Due to the fact that the acts of ‘Ibadah (worship) are Tawqifiy (bound by a religious text and not amenable to personal opinion), Qiyas between one act of ‘Ibadah and another is prohibited and it would additionally be a Qiyas between two dissimilar acts. It is, however, permissible for a Muslim who comes to the Jumu‘ah Prayer in a Masjid, to perform the Salah that Allah has prescribed for them, without specifying a particular number of Rak‘ahs, according to the authentic Hadith stated in this regard.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.