Q 1: What is the ruling on
saying Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah) out loud after the obligatory Prayer?
Does this ruling include all prayers or specific ones? Is this Makruh (disliked) if there is another congregational prayer or other people praying individually in the same place? What are the Adhkar which are Mustahab (desirable) to be said out loud after the obligatory prayer? What is the ruling on supplicating and reciting Qur'an out loud ?
It is prescribed to say Dhikr out loud after the Obligatory prayer, due to what is authentically reported on the authority of
Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with both of them) that he said: (Part No. 7; Page No. 116)
In the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him), it was customary to pronounce Allah’s remembrance aloud after the obligatory prayers.
And he also said:
When I hear that (Adhkar uttered out loud), I know that they (the people) have finished the prayers.
This applies even if some people are still offering prayers, whether congregational or individual Salah, and this is applicable to the five obligatory prayers.Regarding the desirable Adhkar, it is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to ask Allah's forgiveness thrice and say:
O Allah, You are the Peace, peace and security comes from You. Blessed Be You, the owner of Majesty and Nobility)!''
It is mentioned in the Sahih (Authentic) books of
Al-Bukhari that he (peace be upon him) used to say after every obligatory prayer:
La ilaha illa Allah, wahdahu la shareeka lah, lahul-mulku wa-lahul-hamdu, wa-huwa ‘ala kulli shai’in qadeer, Allahumma la mani‘a lima ‘atait wa-la mu‘ti lima mana‘t, wa-la yanfa‘u dhal-gaddu minkal-gadd (There is no god but Allah (Alone) Who has no partner, to Him belong all Sovereignty and Praise, and He is Omnipotent over all things. Oh Allah! None can withhold what You give, and None can give what You withhold, and wealth cannot avail a rich person before You"
Also, it is mentioned in Sahih Muslim that:
The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to say at the end of every prayer after offering Taslim (salutation of peace ending the Prayer): There is no god but Allah. He is Alone. There is no partner with Him. Sovereignty and Praise belong to Him and He is Potent over everything. There is no might or power except with Allah. There is none worthy of worship (in truth) but Allah and we do not worship but Him Alone. To Him belong all bounties, to Him belongs all Grace, and to Him is worthy praise accorded. There is no god but Allah, to Whom we are sincere in devotion, even though the unbelievers should disapprove it
.Moreover it is mentioned that: (Part No. 7; Page No. 117)
The poor amongst the emigrants came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and said: The possessors of great wealth have obtained the highest ranks and everlasting delights. He (peace be upon him) said: How is that? They said: They pray as we pray, and they fast as we fast, and they give charity but we do not give charity, and they set slaves free but we do not do this. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Shall I not teach you something by which you will catch up with those who have preceded you, and get ahead of those who will come after you, only those who do as you do will be better than you (in case you don't do it)? They said: Yes, Messenger of Allah! He (peace be upon him) said: Glorify Allah, declare His Greatness, and Praise Him thirty-three times after every prayer.
It is also mentioned in Sahih Muslim on the authority of
Abu Hurayrah that:
"Whoever pronounces after every prayer: Subhan-Allah [Glory be to Allah] thirty-three times; Al-hamdulillah (Praise be to Allah) thirty-three times; Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest) thirty-three times; and completes the hundred with: La ilaha illallahu, wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu, wa Huwa `ala kulli shai'in Qadir (there is no god but Allah. He is One and He has no partner with Him. For Him is the sovereignty and the praise, and He is Omnipotent), will have all his sins pardoned even if they are as large as the foam on the waves of the sea.''
As for supplication and reciting the Qur'an out loud in groups, this has not been authentically reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) or his Sahabah (Companions), and whoever does this will be a Mubtadi`(one who introduces innovations in religion). But, it is permissible for a person to supplicate and recite out loud solely as long as they do not harm others, the same goes for invocations including Ta'min (saying Amen) such as Du`a' Al-Qunut (supplication recited while standing after bowing in the last unit of Prayer). (Part No. 7; Page No. 118) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.